CK5 and CK14 are high molecular weight cytokeratins expressed in a variety of normal and neoplastic epithelial tissues (1). In prostate tissue, mRNA for CK5 and CK14 has been detected in the basal cells of normal glands and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), a precursor lesion to prostatic adenocarcinoma; however, expression of CK5 or CK14 was not identified in invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma (2).
p63, a homolog of the tumor suppressor p53, has been identified in proliferating basal cells in the epithelial layers of a variety of tissues, including epidermis, cervix, urothelium and prostate (3). p63 was detected in nuclei of the basal epithelium in normal prostate glands; however, it was not expressed in malignant tumors of the prostate (4).
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2. Yang Y, et al. differential expression of cytokeratin mRNA and protein in normal prostate, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive carcinoma. Am J Pathol. 1997 Feb;150(2):693-704.
3. Yang A, et al. p63, a p53 homolog at 3q27–29, encodes multiple products with transactivating, death-inducing, and dominant-negative activities. Mol Cell. 1998 Sep;2(3):305-16.
4. Signoretti S, et al. p63 is a prostate basal cell marker and is required for prostate development. Am J Pathol. 2000 Dec;157(6):1769-75.
5. Tacha DE, Miller RT. Use of p63/P504S monoclonal antibody cocktail in immunohistochemical staining of prostate tissue. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2004 Mar;12(1):75-8. Biocare Medical, Walnut Creek, California.
6. Beach R, et al. P504S immunohistochemical detection in 405 prostatic specimens including 376 18-gauge needle biopsies. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Dec;26 (12):1588-96.
7. Luo J, et al. Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase: a new molecular marker for prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2002 Apr 15;62(8):2220-6.
8. Wang Y, et al. Cell differentiation lineage in the prostate. Differentiation. 2001 Oct;68(4-5):270-9.
9. Tokar EJ, et al. Stem/progenitor and intermediate cell types and the origin of human prostate cancer. Differentiation. 2005 Dec;73(9- 10):463-73.
10. Collins AT, et al. Identification and isolation of human prostate epithelial stem cells based on alpha(2)beta(1)-integrin expression. J Cell Sci. 2001 Nov;114(Pt 21):3865-72.
11. Center for Disease Control Manual. Guide: Safety Management, NO. CDC-22, Atlanta, GA. April 30, 1976 “Decontamination of Laboratory Sink Drains to Remove Azide Salts.”
12. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved Guideline-Fourth Edition CLSI document M29-A4 Wayne, PA 2014.