BRAF, a serine-threonine protein kinase, is a member of the RAF kinase family and plays an important role in the RAS-RAF-MAPK signaling pathway, which regulates cell survival, proliferation and differentiation.(1) Mutations in BRAF results in pathway alteration and sustained kinase activity which lead to carcinogenesis. The bulk of these mutations occur when an amino acid sequence is mutated which leads to valine (V) being substituted for glutamate (E) at codon 600 (V600E).(2,3) BRAF V600E mutation has been established in various types of cancers, such as melanoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma with a frequency of mutation at about 50%, 45%, and 9%, respectively. Previous studies have shown that the prevalence of BRAF mutation in lung carcinoma is approximately 2-4%.(4)
1. Wang XJ, Kim A, Li S. Immunohistochemical analysis using a BRAF V600E mutation specific antibody is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7(7):4323- 4328.
2. Shinozaki E, Yoshino T, Yamazaki K, et al. Clinical significance of BRAF non-V600E mutations on the therapeutic effects of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with pretreated metastatic colorectal cancer: the Biomarker Research for anti-EGFR monoclonal Antibodies by Comprehensive Cancer genomics (BREAC) study. Br J Cancer. 2017;117(10):1450-1458.
3. Tan YH, Liu Y, Eu KW, Ang PW, Li WQ, Salto-Tellez M, et al. (April 2008). Detection of BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. Pathology. 40 (3): 295–8.
4. Karbel HAE, Ejam SS, Naji AZ. Immunohistochemical study using monoclonal VE1 antibody can substitute the molecular tests for apprehension of BRAF V600E mutation in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2019; 2019:2315673.
5. Center for Disease Control Manual. Guide: Safety Management, NO. CDC-22, Atlanta, GA. April 30, 1976 “Decontamination of Laboratory Sink Drains to Remove Azide Salts.”
6. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved Guideline-Fourth Edition CLSI document M29-A4 Wayne, PA 2014.
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