PRAME (preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma) is located on chromosome 22q11.22 and encodes a 509 amino acid protein. PRAME is an autosomal cancer-testis antigen (CTA) gene. PRAME is expressed in melanoma, various nonmelanocytic malignant neoplasms, including nonsmall cell lung cancer, breast carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, leukemia, synovial sarcoma, and myxoid liposarcoma. Normal healthy tissues are not known to express PRAME except for testis, ovary, placenta, adrenals, and endometrium. (1,2)
PRAME is one of the most widely studied CTAs and has been associated with the outcome and risk of metastasis. PRAME is currently being investigated as a novel immunotherapy target and diagnostic marker with ongoing clinical trials that include Hodgkin’s disease, leukemia, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain cancer. (3,4)
1. Zhang W, Barter CJ, Eng KH, et al. PRAME expression and promoter hypermethylation in epithelial ovarian cancer. Oncotarget 2016 Jul; 7(29): 45352-45369. 2. Lezcano C, Jungbluth AA, Nehal KS, et al. PRAME expression in melanocytic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2018 Nov; 42(11): 1456–1465. 3. Salmaninejad A, Zamani, MR, Pourvahedi M,et al. Cancer/testis antigens: expression, regulation, tumor invasion and use in immunotherapy cancers. Immunol Invest 2016 Oct; 45(7): 619-640. 4. Al-Khadairi G, Decock J. Cancer testis antigens and immunotherapy: where do we stand in the targeting of PRAME? Cancers 2019 Jul; 11(7): 984. 5. Center for Disease Control Manual. Guide: Safety Management, NO. CDC-22, Atlanta, GA. April 30, 1976 “Decontamination of Laboratory Sink Drains to Remove Azide Salts.” 6. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Protection of Laboratory Workers from Occupationally Acquired Infections; Approved Guideline-Fourth Edition CLSI document M29-A4 Wayne, PA 2014.