Interferon-gamma (IFNG) is a cytokine secreted predominantly by activated lymphocytes such as CD4 T helper type 1 (Th1) cells and CD8 cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells. IFNG expression is induced by mitogens and cytokines (1). The downstream target genes of IFNG signaling pathway regulate several biological functions, including cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation (2). In adaptive immunity, IFNG directly regulates the differentiation, activation, and homeostasis of Th1 cells; inhibits Th2 cell development; promotes regulatory T cell development and natural killer cell activity; and induces class I MHC expression (3).
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